AQoL-7D questionnaire

Scoring the AQoL-7D

Diagram of the AQoL-7D Structure


Reference papers:

Construction of Descriptive System and Utility Weights


Validity and reliability

  •  Research Paper 45 - Richardson J, Iezzi A, Sinha K, Khan M, Peacock S, Hawthorne G, Misajon R, Keeffe J. (2009). AQoL-7D (Vision) Instrument: Overview, survey results and ultility algorithms, Centre for Health Economics, Monash University, Melbourne.
  • Research Paper 57 - Richardson J. 2010. Psychometric Validity and Multi Attribute Utility (MAU) Instruments, Centre for Health Economics, Monash University, Melbourne.
  • Test-retest reliabilty coefficients - page 37 in Richardson J, Chen, G, Iezzi, A & Khan, M. (2011). Transformations between the Assessment of Quality of Life AQoL Instruments and Test-Retest Reliability. Centre for Health Economics, Monash University, Melbourne.
  • Gothwal, V.K. & Bagga, D.K. (2013). "Vision and Quality of Life Index: Validation of the Indian version using Rasch analysis.". Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54(7): 4871-81. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.13-11892


 - WHO concept of Handicap.



  • 7 separately scored dimensions, consisting of AQoL-6D and an additional dimension (VisQoL) detailing problems of particular relevance for the visually impaired.
  • A simple global ‘utility’ score
  • Increased sensitivity in the range of good health



  • Independent Living - household tasks, mobility outside the home, walking and self-care;
  • Relationships - friendships, family and community role;
  • Mental Health - feelings of despair, worry, sadness, tranquility/agitation;
  • Coping - having enough energy, being in control and coping with problems;
  • Pain - the frequency of pain, the degree of pain and the interference with usual activities caused by pain;
  • Senses - seeing, hearing and communication.
  • VisQoL - the effect of visual impairment on risk of injury, coping, friendships, organising assistance, fulfilling roles and everyday activities


Descriptive System:

  • The VisQoL descriptive system was constructed using a SEM analysis of item responses from 180 members of the general public and 180 visually impaired patients from the Melbourne Royal Eye and Ear Hospital.


Scaling System:

  • TTO weights were e mployed to construct a multiplicative dimension model. These were determined by TTO interviews with 180 randomly selected members of the public across SEIFA groups and 180 visually impaired people.
  • An econometric stage 2 correction was employed using multi-attribute health states.


AQoL-7D takes about 3-4 minutes to complete.


Research Team:

J Richardson (team leader), J Keefe, S Peacock, R Misajon, A Iezzi, K Sinha